Monday, October 12, 2015

GIS and Knowledge based systems

A knowledge based system is a computer program that reasons and uses a knowledge base to solve complex problems. The common theme that unites all knowledge based systems is an attempt to represent knowledge explicitly via tools and rules as opposed to the methodology commonly adopted by conventional computer programs. A knowledge based system has two sub-systems:

  1. A knowledge base and
  2. An Inference engine
Knowledge Based Systems (KBS) were first developed by Artificial Intelligence (AI) researchers.
Expert systems or Knowledge Based Systems try to simulate the human decision making process manipulating data and knowledge through programmed logic. KBS functions can be integrated within a GIS based spatial decision support system as a knowledge and model base.

Coupling a KBS enables a GIS to be knowledgeable about its constraints and potential as well as become aware of the data source, context and use. Treating all data structures as component of an object provides a facility for flexible analysis of data by KBS and GIS.

The coupling takes the form of exchanging files between GIS and a model where input, display and output stages are the only uses of the GIS capability. The knowledge and mapping techniques are encoded in the schematic inquiry of the KBS to follow through the decision making process involved in mapping and prediction. 

The content and priorities of expert routines and their rules represent knowledge. Their procedures and rules form the basis of their action to achieve the goal. The priorities represent when to initiate a goal satisfying routine.

The effectiveness of communication to the user of GIS coupled with KBS for describing a resource would be greatly enhanced by the use of multimedia facilities. 

Finally, the representation of a specialized field of knowledge using Knowledge Based (KBS) approach provides a means of building linkages between skills of the subject specialist, spatial analyst and the needs of the user. 

Thus, this linkage helps provide answers to questions not easily answered by one discipline on its own.